The Pfalz, which begins south of Rheinhessen and is in effect the northward extension of Alsace's Vosges foothills, is the warmest and driest of Germany's Riesling regions, supporting fuller-bodied wines that are typically dry. In fact, the soil here, like Alsace, shows great diversity, marked by alluvial gravel and various types of sedimentary rocks, as opposed to the near exclusive domination of slate in the Mosel-Saar-Ruwer. Like the Rheinhessen better known until recently for quantity than for quality, the Pfalz's handful of top villages and vineyards have nevertheless always been among Germany's most cherished, and the entire region has undergone a substantial turnabout in reputation over the last two decade. While only about one-fifth of the vineyards are planted to Riesling, the grape holds a disproportionate position in the top growing sites, just like elsewhere in the Rhine.
German vintners and Germany's wine law have often been their own worst enemies, and consumers understandably bemoan the unintelligibility of the labels as well as the mediocre quality of so many commercial-grade wines. It is a shame if this situation acts as a barrier to appreciating some of the world's most distinctive and versatile wines. In fact, an excellent case can be made that no other class of wine offers the stylistic diversity, nuanced expression of site and climate, and versatility at the table of German Riesling. These German wines can be adamantly dry, off-dry, or downright sweet. German Reisling wines can be complex and satisfyingly complete at a mere 7% alcohol, yet can also avoid coming off as heavy at over 14%.
The tradition of Riesling excellence in Germany makes two important presuppositions over and beyond the talents of the individual vintner. First, in a generally cool environment incorporating Europe's northernmost significant vineyards, the microclimatic conditions of a given vineyard site--its exposure to the sun, shelter from wind, proximity to water, geological underpinnings, and other environmental factors--are of paramount importance. Second, to get the most out of Riesling's potential in a good site, the grapes in any given parcel are generally harvested in multiple passes, at times weeks apart, in a process that often involves the selection of particular bunches or occasionally even of individual berries. These factors explain why most of the best German Rieslings preserve their vineyard identity and are labeled to reflect this. They also reflect the many pickings of a given vineyard through labeling with different designations of descriptions or taste.