The Alexander Valley is located at the northern end of Sonoma County and has roughly 15,000 acres under vine. The "Alexander Valley" designation was historically used to label wines produced exclusively within the Russian River's floodplain, but it's now found on Alexander Valley wines that are produced farther afield. Thanks in part to the broader definition of its territory, the Alexander Valley is now home to numerous microclimates and a wide range of varieties, of which Cabernet Sauvignon remains the most widely planted.
During the growing season, cool morning fog rolls up the Russian River Valley and typically burns off by the hot, sunny afternoon. On the warm valley floor, Cabernet Sauvignon has yielded the best Alexander Valley wines. Other Alexander Valley red wines, such as Zinfandel and Merlot, are also planted widely, as are Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, and even Gewurztraminer and Riesling. The latter two cool-climate varieties fare best on the hills near Mendocino.
Sonoma Valley is nestled between the Sonoma Mountain Range on the west and the Mayacamas Mountains on the East. North Coast winemaking began here back in 1825 when the missionary fathers established Mission Sonoma. By the 1850s, Sonoma had evolved into California's wine making center, a distinction it gradually ceded to Napa over the next fifty years. In the 1970s, however, Sonoma wines had begun to reclaim the international renown they enjoy today.
With more than 7,000 acres planted to Sonoma Valley wine grapes, the Valley stretches for 40 miles north from the San Pablo Bay to just below Santa Rosa. Although summertime fog enters the valley from both the north and south, Sonoma's cooler regions by far are located in the southern part of the valley, primarily in the Carneros district. In contrast, the climate along the valley floor in the middle of the region can be quite warm.
Though compact, Sonoma Valley hosts a very wide array of vineyard soil types, topographies, and elevations. That said, there are a few rules of thumb: In the southern Valley (between Carneros and the town of Sonoma), the best Sonoma wines come from early-maturing varieties like Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer, Pinot Noir, and, from some producers, Merlot. On the hillsides and along the hilltops, Cabernet Sauvignon and Zinfandel fare the best so long as the elevation is above the frost line. Chardonnay and Pinot Noir, the two most widely cultivated varieties in Sonoma, perform best along the benchlands between Sonoma and Kenwood.
It is remarkable that an industry essentially less than a half-century old could capture the attention of the American wine-buying public to the degree that California has. Powerful consumer interest in California wine is driven by two major factors. The more obvious reason is that California's best wines, which come from grapes grown in a benign climate featuring endless sunshine, very warm summer days, and generally dry harvests, and wonderfully fruity, full, and satisfying, and rarely too austere or tannic to be enjoyed from day one.
California is blessed with an extraordinary range of soils and microclimates, allowing for the successful cultivation of many varieties. In at least three out of four years, the best sites produce healthy, ripe fruits that are the envy of European producers in more marginal climates. The other reason Americans buy so much California wine is that California is the home team. Clearly, a high percentage of domestic wine drinkers are more comfortable buying American wines (and not just wines of California) than imports. Then, too, foreign bottles are generally identified by place name, rather than by the more familiar varieties that American wine drinkers have come to know and enjoy.
Moreover, in much of North America, outside the top 15 or 20 largest metropolitan markets, consumers have limited access to imported wines even if they wanted to buy them.
For many, Napa Valley is California wine, and Cabernet is king in Napa Valley. Meanwhile, the Burgundy varieties Chardonnay and Pinot Noir have gravitated to cooler areas, generally closer to the Pacific, such as the western stretches of Sonoma County, the Anderson Valley in Mendocino County, and the Santa Maria and Santa Ynez valleys within Santa Barbara County. Syrah vines have yielded interesting wines in a range of styles all over the state, in regions as disparate as Mendocino County, the Sonoma coast, Carneros, Paso Robles, and Santa Maria Valley. Very good Zinfandel similarly comes from multiple growing areas, although to date the age-of-vines variable has been almost as important as geography. Zinfandel, though its roots are in Europe, is a true California original and the only California wine imitated abroad. It's also a variety of which there are still significant plantings of very old vines, in some cases dating back to the end of the 19th century.
Soft, palate-caressing wines, with notes of red cherry and nutmeg
Grilled meats, stews, hearty fare
The Carignan grape suffers from the curse of high yields. Until recently the most widely planted red-wine grape in France, Carignan comes from vines that can produce as much as 11 tons of fruit per acre. These high yields mean that there's plenty of wine to go around; often more than the market can handle. This lack of interest is exacerbated by the tendency of high-yielding vines to grow poorly concentrated fruit, especially in the absence of devoted efforts at pruning in the vineyard.
Certainly, there is fine justification for the efforts, sponsored by the European Union, to pull Carignan vines from vineyards in France in the last decade. The surplus of wine was undeniable. Much of this wine had little to recommend it. But when produced from very old vines that are carefully tended, Carignan can help craft characterful and concentrated wines. The best examples of this grape come from the Coteaux du Languedoc appellation in southern France. Even here, Carignan is rarely used to make single varietal wines, as AOC regulations require that it be blended with other grapes. Consequently, it is generally mixed with Syrah, Mourvedre, and Grenache. Other appellations in southern France, including Costieres de Nîmes, Corbieres and Minervois, also produce interesting, and reasonably priced blends incorporating the Carignan grape.
For single-varietal expressions of Carignan, look to Sardinia. Here, the grape yields palate-caressing wines with aromas and flavors of red cherry and nutmeg. Again, the success of the grape is highly dependent on the wine-maker, but with the proper care, these wines can be quite interesting. Look to wines from Santadi, arguably the best cooperative on the island.
Some California producers have also begun making single-varietal bottlings of Carignan from old vines. Look to Ridge Vineyards and Bonny Doon for reliable examples.